“Let's stop criticizing our banks!”

More than ten years after the subprime mortgage crisis, all the light has not been shed, and yet the idea of ​​the guilt of the banks has taken hold firmly in people's minds. They are even blamed for the double fault, since after playing with fire and triggering the crisis, they allegedly asked for help from the States. This unanimous condemnation, the result of incomplete analyzes, is a heavy component of the bank bashing that has raged since then and unfortunately works against our interests. We are indeed at a critical moment when Europe, faced with the domination of American finance and the dollar, must develop its own financial capacities. The development of a strong pan-European financial sector is therefore essential if we particularly want to foster the emergence of future European gafas. 
If it is vain to hope for the complete disappearance of this bank bashing and, one might say, of the bashing market whose roots plunge both in history and in ignor…

Study of the green economy in West Africa: the challenges facing the region.

 The green economy is seen as a major tool to promote sustainable development. Green growth is more and more attractive, and has become at the heart of new national policies in the region. The Rio 20 summit in June 2012 reminded the international community that the green economy is a way to relaunch states' commitments to sustainable development.

Analysis of the challenges facing West Africa.

West Africa faces many challenges to maintain its commitment to sustainable development. Extreme poverty, youth and women's work, the depletion and degradation of natural resources on which the region is very dependent, the negative effects of climate change, the issue of food security, transparency and good governance of the region are examples of hardships that the region must go through.

First of all, West Africa has to face the problem of poverty which persists despite political initiatives in favor of the fight against extreme poverty. West Africa is one of the poorest regions in the world and most of the least developed countries are concentrated in the region. More than one in two people live on less than a dollar a day. In Benin, Togo, Ghana, poverty affects less than a third of the population while in Burkina Faso, Gambia, Guinea, Senegal and Nigeria, almost half live below the poverty line . In Niger and Guinea-Bissau, almost two-thirds of the population are poor, as are in Mali and Sierra Leone. 

Second, one of the main challenges facing West Africa is the challenge of political and institutional administration. Most countries in the region have worked at the national level to strategically reduce poverty (PRSP) and achieve sustainable development priorities, first with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and then with the Sustainable Development Goals. (SDGs.) Countries have also developed national strategies for sustainable development (NSSD) but have not yet borne fruit due to the ambitious nature of the strategies on the economic, social and environmental levels. At the regional level, initiatives such as ECOWS’s Community Development Program (CDP), WAEMU’s Regional Economic Program (REP) and other initiatives are emerging. The promotion of good administration must focus on parity equality, on strengthening good public administration and on the emergence of economically strong local communities.

In addition, the region is faced with the issues of climate change and degradation of natural resources. Reports have shown that a large number of mineral resources will be depleted within the next decades and that the stock of natural resources is severely declining due to pressure from population density. Yet West Africa's economic activity relies heavily on agriculture, fisheries and forestry, all of which are significantly vulnerable to climate change. 

Finally, one of the main challenges facing the region is access to energy. West Africa has the lowest rate of access to electricity in the world. However, there are disparities between countries: in Ghana, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, Nigeria and Benin, the rate is around 50% while in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau and in Niger, the rates barely reach 10%. Important contrasts can be noticed between rural and urban areas.