BCEAO releases $ 6 billion for West African economies

The BCEAO has just made a liquidity injection of 3350 billion FCFA ($ 6 billion) at a fixed rate of 2% in favor of several banks of the UMOA. A total of 87 financial institutions participated in the operation. The Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) made a further injection of liquidity to its member countries last week. In total, 3350 billion FCFA ($ 6 billion) were disbursed by the institution.

During the auction on September 14, 87 banks in the sub-region obtained an injection of liquidity at a fixed rate of 2%. With more than 1000 billion FCFA ($ 1.8 billion), it is the Ivory Coast which obtained the most important financing, ie 31% of the funds injected.

It is followed by Senegal with more than 580 billion FCFA ($ 1 billion), Mali with 466 billion FCFA (835 million $), Benin with 434.5 billion FCFA (777 million $) and Burkina Faso with 318 billion FCFA. ($ 569 million). Niger with 241.6 billion FCFA ($ 432 million), Togo with 219 billion FCFA (…

Railway blockades: past clashes haunt government of Canada

The ghosts of past Indigenous protests never stop haunting the federal government as it attempts to peacefully end the various blockades that have been disrupting rail traffic in the country for more than two weeks. All of these names refer to violent clashes to end an occupation led by Aboriginal people.

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau stressed the need for a peaceful resolution to the conflict on Friday when he called on the police to execute injunctions and dismantle the barricades blocking the railways. He worried about a new Oka.

Railway blockades - past clashes haunt government of Canada

In 1990, a police officer was killed when the Sûreté du Québec attempted to dislodge Aboriginal protesters occupying a pine forest in protest at the expansion of a golf course. The crisis lasted no less than 78 days and the army was called upon to intervene. Relations between the Mohawks and non-natives deteriorated at that time. We saw a convoy of indigenous women, children and the elderly fleeing Kahnawake being stoned by white people.

"History has taught us how governments can make things worse if they don't exhaust all other avenues," said Trudeau.

The Oka crisis lasted no less than 78 days and the army was called upon to intervene.

But no one seems to have learned the lesson in the past 60 years. History will repeat itself as long as governments fail to resolve aboriginal land claims, said Hayden King director general of the Ryerson University of Toronto Yellowhead Institute.

"Throughout Canadian history, Canadians have wanted access to land. They want to use the land, they want to extract resources from it. This overriding interest prevailed, but it created significant prejudice and harmed aboriginal people, he said. We are at a point in history where all of these violent confrontations are reaching their point. There is no clear way to resolve this problem in a climate of so-called reconciliation. "


At the start of the crisis, Mr. Trudeau had adopted a markedly different tone in preaching patience.

Michael Coyle, a law professor at Western University, says it is the right strategy that is "much more likely to lead to a mutually agreed and respectful outcome".

He believes that the police have learned from past mistakes and that the use of force can endanger the lives of others.

A lesson no doubt learned after 1995. In that year, members of the Stony Creek First Nation in Ontario occupied Ipperwash Provincial Park. Under pressure from the provincial government, provincial police officers in riot gear tried to evict them. In the ensuing confusion, an Aboriginal protester, Dudley George, was shot dead.

A subsequent investigation strongly criticized the OPP for failing to educate its officers on aboriginal rights or for disciplining some of the overtly racist officers involved in the operation. He also criticized the police and the government for not trying to communicate with protesters or to negotiate an end to the occupation of the park.


In 2006, the Six Nations of the Grand River Mohawks occupied a construction site on land claimed by this community southwest of Hamilton. Local residents accused the Aboriginal people of harassment, intimidation and sabotage before accusing the OPP of doing nothing to protect them. The occupation lasted 52 days before a police intervention in which 16 people were arrested. Several police officers were injured. Like today, Mohawks of Tyendinaga had blocked the railroad tracks near Belleville out of solidarity.

In 1995, a farmer attempted to hunt a small group of Aboriginal people who participated in a sun dance on his property in Gustafson Lake. They considered it to be on unceded Secwepemc territory and refused to leave. Some 400 RCMP officers, supported by helicopters and armored vehicles, were deployed to the scene. Shootings followed in which an Aboriginal woman was injured. The impasse persisted for several months. The police operation cost 5.5 million.